Agriculture
0 Comments

Will agriculture be regulated by the “cap”?

No, under the most climate legislation being discussed in Congress manufacturing, transportation and utilities are “capped” entities, not agriculture. Agriculture, however, has the potential to be involved in the “trade” portion of the market.

Q. How much are these markets worth?

Analysis from EPA indicates ACES could create a domestic offset market valued at $2.7 billion to $3.4 billion or more annually within five years of the legislation’s implementation.(iii) Recent USDA analysis indicates domestic agricultural and forestry offset revenues of $2 billion per year in the near-term rising to $28 billion per year in the long-term.(iv) USDA analysis found that under ACES, “the agricultural sector will have modest costs in the short term and net benefits – perhaps significant net benefits – over the longterm.”(v)

Q. How can agricultural practices reduce or offset greenhouse gases and climate change?

Plants naturally take up carbon dioxide (a primary greenhouse gas) and give off oxygen. In this process, they also store or “sequester” carbon in the soil through their roots; however, most of that carbon is released when farmers plow up the field to plant a crop. If farmers were to use direct seeding or no-till practices to plant crops, they would keep all that stored carbon in the soil. Practices like this, which have the ability to literally take CO2 out of the atmosphere and sink it into soils –also create better soil fertility, water quality, water retention and greater wildlife habitat. Other farming practices could also qualify for GHG emission reduction credits under the bill now before Congress. ACES allows for 2 billion annual offset credits to be traded on the market. Currently, the bill allows for emissions to be offset by:(vi)

  • Soil Carbon Sequestration
  • Animal Waste Methane Capture
  • Nitrous Oxide Reductions from Fertilizer Application
  • Afforestation Carbon Sequestration
  • Forest Management Carbon Sequestration

USDA forecasts the amount of carbon sequestered by US agriculture will nearly double from current levels in the next five years.(vii) This additional uptake is expected through improved soil management (~60%), improved manure and nutrient management (~30%), and additional land-retirement (~10%).(viii)

Q. How do offsets impact the cost of emissions reductions for the US economy?

Agricultural carbon offsets are a lowest cost option and they can significantly reduce the overall cost of a cap-and-trade system while still achieving the desired level of emissions reductions. Additionally, offsets may act as a price “safety valve” for cap-and-trade if an unlimited number of offsets are allowed. As the price of a carbon allowance or credit rises, because the cost of abatement is often lower for agriculture than for other sectors, new entrants will arrive at an earlier price-point than other participants.

Also Check – How can agriculture be a part of the solution to climate change?

In Regards To Woodwork, This Article Holds The Best Techniques

It is a positive thing to identify and nurture your particular niche in the art of woodworking. Keep reading to understand woodworking better and have fun with it too.

Do you realize that your workbench height affects your work? This will help you know what the perfect height.

Gel stains can be your best friend when staining furniture and other wood projects that need staining. Gel stains will adhere much better on lumber because the liquid kind usually run.Gel stains are also allow for consistent color on pieces since it is thicker.

You should do dry fitting before you apply glue and clamping your woodworking pieces together. You can cause damage if you tinker with the fit after you’ve applied the glue. Dry fitting will help you how the components fit together.

Know your wood’s properties before you use it for a specific project that requires staining. Using the appropriate wood means your project has a better chance of turning into what you expected it to.

Understand the characteristics of the wood you’re using. Every piece of wood will be different to work with. Different woods will also splinter differently. There will also be a wide range of wood grains. All of these characteristics will become features in your woodworking projects.

Ear protection is important if you begin a project. The machinery used for woodworking can be very loud. You can lose your hearing because of it. Use a pair of high quality headphones or ear plugs you can throw away. Make sure you use some form of protection when operating machinery.

Are you having trouble reaching that is insufficient for your screwdriver and highly obscured screw? Your toolbox contains the answer!Get a screwdriver with a long handle and a 12-point socket.

Look around your neighborhood and workplace for some free wood. Some businesses may have excess wood pallets lying around and they’d be willing to just give it to you. Look online and find ideas for some more ideas.

You can make cuts without a perfectionist with tape measures. Cutting on your scrap wood first is always a good idea and means you can test a fitting out. Having a variety in the ways you from mental boredom.

When you’re working with wood, you should understand that you don’t have to have perfect creations all the time. They will have a little character and are what you make of them. Your skills will improve as you work on more projects and use the tips that were listed above.…

Agriculture
0 Comments

How can agriculture be a part of the solution to climate change?

With the adoption of a cap-and-trade market that includes agricultural offsets, it has been estimated that 30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets could be met with agricultural offsets annually over the next 50 years.(i) Currently, agriculture emits about 6% of the annual total of US greenhouse gases.(ii) Reductions could come from the use of methane capture, precision fertilizer application, and other agricultural practices such as carbon sequestration.

Q. What are offset markets and how do they work?

Since greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere from emissions worldwide, greenhouse gas reductions can come from anywhere with equal impact on climate change. Offset markets are a way for companies to meet their GHG reduction obligations through reductions outside their facilities and operations. A company might do this for a period of time to avoid replacing equipment before the end of its useful life or because it is the most cost effective way to meet their reduction obligations.

For example, if a utility is required to reduce their emissions by 100 tons over the next year, an offset market allows them maximum flexibility to meet that goal while keep prices stable for consumers. The utility could reduce its direct emissions to reach part of the goal, increase its efficiency to meet part, and it could choose to purchase GHG reductions from farmers for part – or its entire target depending on which choices make the most economic sense. In this way, offset markets make it possible to take action to reduce greenhouse gases without significantly affecting the economy.

In order to create these markets Congress must adopt a policy that caps greenhouse gas emissions and allows agricultural offsets to be purchased in place of allowances (cap and trade). So far, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) has passed the House of Representatives, which contains multiple opportunities for American agriculture to partake in a robust offset market. The Senate is involved in ongoing discussion of climate legislation, but Senator Stabenow and six key co-sponsors have introduced the Clean Energy Partnerships Act of 2009 (CEPA) which makes America’s agriculture and manufacturing part of the solution in the debate over climate and clean energy. CEPA includes a domestic emission-reductions program to earn carbon credits and a list of initial eligible projects.

You can even look for :- Will agriculture be regulated by the “cap”?

Tips For Making Woodworking Projects Easier And More Fun

This article can help fine tune your woodworking knowledge. The following article has some great tips for folks of all skill level. Read this article if you want to better your skills as a woodworker.

Use stair gauges for crosscut guide.Then you simply mark where the notches. You have a great crosscut guide for your circular saw when you put it on the carpenter’s square.

Be sure that you have some kind of an idea of what you can budget your budget allowance can accommodate. It is very disappointing to find out of the project. Do your due diligence to avoid surprises.

Gel stains are the new big thing for staining furniture. Gel stains will adhere much better on the wood because they don’t run like the liquid stains do. Gel stains are much thicker which means they’re more consistent.

You need a good stair gauge inside your shop. This can make the carpenter square into a guide for your circular saw guide. Using this square will allow you get straight cuts that are straight.

Know the characteristics of any wood before you buy or use it. Using the appropriate wood ensures that your project has a better chance of turning into what you expected it to.

Keeping a little ruler inside your pocket is smart, however sometimes it can be frustrating if it falls out.The magnet keep the ruler in your pocket at all times.

Learn all about the wood you are working with and their characteristics. Each wood is completely different. Different woods will splinter differently. There will also be a wide range of wood grains. All of this will become factors in your woodworking projects.

Be sure that you have a good blade that in great condition before sawing. A dull blade will not be able to saw the way you to finish your project.

Add a bit more spring in your grip. These clamps can be very difficult to open up with one hand.There are ways to make it easier. Before you start to glue, arrange all the clamps you will be using onto some scrap wood while both of your hands are free. This makes it possible to use them with only one hand unnecessary.

Wear sturdy footwear as you are working on your wood projects. You want to make sure your feet are protected from getting injured if you accidentally step on a nail or kick something heavy.You need to have solid footwear in order to prevent injuries from occurring where you are working in.

Make sure your work area.Woodworking requires great accuracy when measuring.

Be very careful when using your table saw. This will prevent boards from your board when you are cutting. This technique will also keep the board end open so you can cut.

Watch some woodworking shows that air on television.They can provide you useful information and give you inspiration for your next projects. Check your TV listings for these types of programming.

As was stated earlier, the article above has lots of information that is useful for woodworkers with any level of skill. Use this information for your next project. Now, go get started!…

Facts
0 Comments

International

INTRODUCTION

The development of markets for carbon offsets has important implications for farmers all over the world. Farmers in both the developed and developing world have the potential to reduce and sequester carbon through farming practices such as no-till or conservation agriculture, precision fertilizer application, and methane capture. These practices can reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as result in additional benefits for farm productivity, soil quality, and water quality. All of these practices have the potential to be credited as carbon offsets if the right mechanisms were in place, whether in US legislation or an international treaty.

There are also practices such as avoided deforestation that have important implications for agriculture. For example, REDD or Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, is a mechanism that would credit farmers through the carbon market for keeping tropical forests standing. REDD has the potential to achieve significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries. It also has important implications for US farms like competitiveness and land use change. Read more about REDD in our white paper.

WORKING GROUP INTERNATIONAL

The Ag Carbon Market Working Group has been connecting with farmers around the world to share information about how agriculture can contribute to the solution to climate change. We have taken part in farmer exchanges with Germany and Brazil, and our members have participated in the international climate negotiations. Or read the blog at AgOffsets to follow our experience at the international climate summit in Poznan and Copenhagen.

Check our Useful Sources Post to Explore.

If you are interested in international ag carbon markets, please sign-up to receive updates from the Working Group and continue to check our website for news and analysis. Or you can contact us directly to learn more about the working group.

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Check out the following websites for other international organizations focused on the role of agriculture in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)
Carbon Coalition of Australia
Soil Conservation Council of Canada
COPA-COGECA Farmers and Agri-Cooperatives of Europe
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Avoided Deforestation Partners (ADP)

INTERNATIONAL PLATFORMS ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE

International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)
COPA-COGECA Farmes and Agri-Cooperatives of Europe
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
International Food Agricultural Trade Policy Council
Global Donor Program for Rural Development
Tropical Forest and Climate Unity Agreement…

Facts
0 Comments

Useful Sources

AgOffsets Blog http://www.agoffsets.blogspot.com/

Consortium for Agricultural Soils Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases (CASMGS) http://www.casmgs.colostate.edu/

Duke University, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Standard for Measuring, Monitoring and Verifying Ag-Forest GHG Reductions http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/institute/ghgoffsetsguide/

Clean Air Task Force Economic Modeling of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Bill http://lieberman.senate.gov/documents/catflwcsa.pdf

Also check for International post.

Pacific NW Direct Seed Association Carbon Program http://www.directseed.org/carbon%20trading.html

General
Climate & Carbon Information
CASMGS
Climate and Farming Cornell University
Kansas State Carbon Center
Pew Center-Global Climate Change
Point Carbon
www.casmgs.colostate.edu
www.climateandfarming.org
www.soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu
www.pewclimate.org
www.pointcarbon.org
Conservation/NoTill Organizations

Alberta Reduced Tillage Linkages
Conservation Technology Information Center
Eastern Canada Soil & Water Conservation Centre
Innovative Farmers of Ontario
International Biochar Initiative
Manitoba-No Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Assn
Natural Resource Conservation Service
No-till on the Plains
Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association
Saskatchewan Conservation Learning Centre
Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association
Soil and Water Conservation Society
Soil Conservation Council of Canada
The Land Institute
Western Australia No-Tillage Farmers Assn

www.reducedtillage.ca
www.ctic.purdue.edu/
www.ccse-swcc.nb.cawww.ifao.com
www.biochar-international.org
www.mandakzerotill.org

www.nrcs.usda.gov
www.notill.org
www.directseed.org
www.conservationlearningcentre.com

www.ssca.ca

www.swcs.org
www.soilcc.ca
www.landinstitute.org
www.wantfa.com.au

   
Environmental Groups  

Ducks Unlimited Canada
Saskatchewan Wildlife Federation

www.ducks.ca
www.swf.sk.ca
   
Carbon
Sequestration & Trading
Experts
 

Charles W. (Chuck) Rice
William E. Schlosser
William Ferretti, Liaison to Govt/Public
Don Reicosky, USDA-ARS, Minnesota

www.soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu
www.consulting-foresters.com
www.chicagoclimatex.com
www.mrsars.usda.gov
   
Aggregators  

Illinois Delta
Iowa Farm Bureau
National Carbon Offset Coalition
National Farmers Union
Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association
SunOne Solutions

www.illinoisclimate.org
www.iowafarmbureau.com/special/carbon/
www.ncoc.us
www.nfu.org
www.directseed.org
www.sunonesolutions.com
Facts
0 Comments

What will happen to farming income?

Projections on increased costs from cap-and-trade to agriculture vary widely. Analysis by Iowa State University economist Bruce Babcock indicates “relatively small” production costs of roughly $4.52 per acre for corn and soy farmers in Iowa, on the order of 1-2%. To put this potential cost increase into perspective, the variable cost of producing corn and soybeans in Iowa in 2009 is somewhere around $300 per acre. Babcock also cites that the amount of soil carbon that can be increased from adoption of no-till farming is typically on the order of one ton of CO2 per hectare, or about 0.4 tons per acre annually. At a $20-per-ton carbon price, this amounts to $8.00 per acre.

USDA analysis of ACES also indicates only marginal production cost increases. In fact, USDA found the near-term impact of ACES on net farm income is less than a 1% decrease. While USDA predicts the cost of fertilizer and production will increase over the medium and longer term, these increases are still predicted to be less than 10%.

Depending on the carbon pricing scheme, farmers could increase their net profits under a cap and trade system (after taking costs into account). Recent USDA analysis “strongly suggests that revenue from agricultural offsets (afforestation, soil carbon, methane reduction, nitrous oxide reductions) rise faster than costs to agriculture from cap and trade legislation.”

KEY OFFSET TERMS
To have value in the market, offsets represent an actual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Offsets meet some basic guidelines to ensure quality. Pending federal cap-and-trade climate legislation would begin the creation of universal standards. However, generally, offsets that are Permanent, Additional, Verifiable, and Real emissions reductions will have value:

1. Permanence. The most desirable carbon sequestration projects are those where the emissions reductions are likely to remain intact indefinitely. However, some types of projects may be reversible; these projects may enter into a contract lease, potentially as short as a handful of years. A project of this variety could qualify for offsets, particularly if the purchaser agrees to make up the lost emission reductions through other means after the lease expires.

2. Additionality. An offset project needs to be an activity that would not have taken place normally, therefore keeping more carbon dioxide from reaching the atmosphere than would have otherwise happened. That is, the project needs to be a net reduction beyond the baseline for operations or behavior.

3. Leakage. When a carbon offset project in one location results in a net increase of emission elsewhere, this is referred to as leakage. For example, if keeping part of a field fallow to sequester carbon at a site leads to land clearing elsewhere, the emissions is said to have “leaked”. Quality offsets must account for and minimize leakage.

4. Verification. Reductions must be measured and monitored for accuracy. Moreover, periodic third party measuring and monitoring is important to ensure honesty and transparency.

5. Double Counting. When carbon reductions are applied to multiple reduction targets or counted twice within the same reduction target. This can happen across supply chains and if a project is included in two different markets.

6. Stackability. The potential to earn additional payments for multiple types of ecosystem benefits. That is, stackability could mean earning carbon payments in addition to other payments such as water quality permit payments, CRP incentives, etc.

SOURCES
(i) US Environmental Protection Agency, 2005, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture, EPA 430-R-05-006.
(ii) Ibid.
(iii) Calculations based on 2009 EPA analysis of domestic offsets usage under the domestic and international offset market scenarios. Data from: U.S EPA. 2009. EPA Analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 H.R. 2454 in the 111th Congress. Retrieved online from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/pdfs/HR2454_Analysis.pdf
(iv) Values in real 2005 dollars. Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture. You can even look for :- What will happen to farming income?
(v) Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.
(vi) U.S. EPA. 2009. EPA Analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 H.R. 2454 in the 111th Congress. Retrieved online from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/pdfs/HR2454_Analysis.pdf
(vii) Congressional Research Service. 6 Mar 2007. Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector.
(viii) Ibid.
(ix) Babcock, Bruce. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University. 13 July 2009. “Economist: Climate bill’s farm impact ‘relatively small’.” Retrieved online from: http://blogs.desmoinesregister.com/dmr/index.php/2009/07/13/economist-climate-bills-farm-impact-relatively-small/.
(x) Babcock, Bruce. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University. 2009. Costs and Benefits to Agriculture from Climate Change Policy. Iowa Ag Review. Summer, Vol. 15, No. 3. Retrieved online from: http://www.card.iastate.edu/iowa_ag_review/summer_09/article1.aspx.
(xi) Ibid.
(xii) Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.
(xiii) Ibid.
(xiv)Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.…