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Grab The Best Sewing Machine For You.

One of the basic things we need is cloth. We like to wear trendy and attractive clothes. Not only we purchase attractive clothes for ourself but also for the whole family. I have seen many pregnant women who love to stitch clothes for their coming baby. There are women who love to stitch buttons and torn clothes of her husband. There are housewives who wish to have an extra income which can support her husband for building their dream home. There are also females who want to be known as a dress designer. There are also a majority of women who want to design dress for their own.

So, to achieve such dreams and to hold your aims, you need to have a best sewing machine with you. For that you need to obtain the knowledge of different types of sewing machine and at the same time its various features. This article will help you to note down different types of sewing machine you can have and at the same time will guide you for the best sewing machine.

Types of Sewing Machine

types of sewing machine

Sewing machine are presently available at various models. They are domestic model, tailor model, industrial model, portable and cabinet models. This type of models are operated with the help of hand, treadle or electric motor. There are basically three main types of sewing machine which are demanded more by the customers and they are electric sewing machines, computerised sewing machines, overlocker sewing machines and manual sewing machines.

Let’s have a detailed idea on this types of sewing machines.

1. Electric Sewing Machines

Electric sewing machine works with the help of electricity. It basically contains a single motor in the body which gives power to the needle. They have an electronic foot pedal. The speed of the machine can be controlled by the foot pedal by applying pressure on it. In the electronic machine, the user can hold the fabrics with both the hands which helps to handle it easily. There are some buttons present on the side of the electronic sewing machine which helps you to control the types of stitch and also the length. Every cloth needs different types of stitching. An electric sewing machine will help you to stitch in different types as you prefer. Some electronic sewing machines contains automatic settings, automatic thread cutter and automatic button hole stitch. This type of sewing machines can sew multiple fabrics and broad volume of stitch patterns. There are various features provided by different brands at different prices.

2. Computerised Sewing Machines

Compared to electronic sewing machine, a computerised sewing machine can provide you with many more facilities. Computerised sewing machine are mostly preferred for the advanced needs. This type of sewing machine does not contains buttons and dials instead, they are yield with LCD or LED display or a large touch screen. As mentioned earlier, they are provided with vast number of functions. The normal computerised sewing machine can recollect your previous sewing tasks and due to this, it can automatically set the tension. The advanced computerised sewing machines can stitch complicated embroidery stitches. This machine also contains USB ports, so that the user can create designs on his laptop or computer and then link it to the machine. You can also set your own patterns and designs. You can also download the patterns from the internet and use it. As it provides the users with different facilities, the cost of this sewing machine is naturally costlier than other type of sewing machines like manual and electronic sewing machines. Although it is costlier, there are customers who use computerised sewing machine, as they can sew all types of materials and at the same time saves your time.

3. Overlocker Sewing Machines

Overlocker sewing machines are known as sergers in North America. This type of models are designed to stop unravel and to provide a professional touch to the stitch of the garment. The functions of overlock sewing machines are limited. The main aim of an overlocker sewing machine is to create a clean and neat stitches. This sewing machines are faster than a normal sewing machine and you can also buy attachments that make it particularly useful for stitching rolled homes, gathering and attaching bindings.

4. Manual Sewing Machines

Manual sewing machine is our traditional sewing machine which are used by the tailors. It is used by turning the handwheel as you guide the fabric under the needle with the other hand. After the arrival of new featured sewing machines, the demand for manual sewing machine has decreased.

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Using The Best Portable Washing Machine

A Washing Machine has truly made the task of washing clothes very easy for us. Women wash clothes of the whole household every day. So having a portable Washing Machine is an essential thing. They are of two types, Front Loading, and Top loading. Sometimes people have to travel to various places regularly, for a few days, hence washing clothes becomes a difficult task. For this, there are the Portable Washing Machines in the market now. These portable washing machines give almost all the same functions as that of the full washing machines, With an added advantage of portability.

Besides which, they have many other advantages too, over the Conventional Washing Machines. They are as follows:

  • These Portable Washing Machines are really becoming more popular all over the world. Hence, more companies are making more models of them.
  • The price of a Portable Washing Machine is less as compared to the conventional ones.
  • They occupy less floor space than the conventional ones.
  • They use fewer Detergents and Electricity than the Full Conventional ones.
  • A portable washing machine is predestined for the single / student household with confined space conditions.
  • It is also suitable for operation in case of lack of water connection.
  • It is also suitable for weekend riders and anyone who wants to wash quickly.
  • They are good for sensitive clothes. Since they wash the clothes by making water pulsate through them. That means that clothes are not rotated like in the regular washing machines. This method is gentler and therefore very good for sensitive clothes.
  • For those who have to Laundry clothes for every day, these Portable Washing Machines are sufficient.  They take a maximum load of around 6kgs. That is lighter than the full conventional ones.
  • They can also dry clothes for you, after the washing part.
  • They are the best ones to take for any picnic, trekking, or an outing of more than few days.

After looking at all these advantages, surely you must be very excited about getting one for yourself. Haier, Ivation, Giantex, Pyle are some of the reputed manufacturers of the Portable Washing Machine. The Electric Small Portable Compact Washer, Washing Machine | for Dorms, College Rooms, RV Camping, (PUCWM11) comes for a price of $74.99.  it’s simple to use and provides Hassle-free operation. It is the Top loading type. It has a handle which helps you carry it to any desired location.

The cheapest amongst all the options is the Cost way Mini Washing Machine Small Compact Washer 6.6lbs Capacity. It comes with a retail price of just $45.99. it can wash up to 3 kg of clothes at a time. Its overall dimensions are 14″ X 14″ X 20″( L X W X H). It offers great flexibility, plus it also saves a good amount Electricity and Water. It has a Timer control as well. Among the portable types, a majority of them are top loading, rarely there is a front Loading Washing Machine. Although there are also some hybrid variants.

If you live in a hostel and need to do all the Laundry by yourself, then the Portable Washing Machine is just the Best for you. Some of the portable washing machines have a twin tub instead of one. It functions as a separate dryer or even fine washer. But in the end, it definitely gives a better wash. It is always better to buy a Portable Washing Machine than a full conventional one.

Electricity Efficiency
whilst you buy any huge appliance, energy efficiency and annual strength costs must play a position on your final selection. although portable washing machines are not as power-green as many full-sized models, you could still save a few money through finding one that doesn’t use as a good deal strength. if you want to keep cash in the end, look for a transportable washer that makes use of much less strength.

Design & Portability
one of the first elements to recollect when you search for a transportable washing system is its design and, of course, its portability. You don’t want to have to lug an ungainly, heavy gadget across the house whenever you need to do a load of laundry. search for a unit that is lightweight however also consists of design elements that make moving it a painless technique, which include casters that assist you to wheel it from room to room and cupboard handles that make it smooth to carry. in addition, don’t forget the dimensions of the washer, as you will need to shop it in a closet or cupboard while you’re not the use of it.…

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Payment Gateway For Tech Support Process

Computer plays a major role today to provide all services to people. From home to office, they are very useful these days as every activity is closely related to computers only. Because of all this, they occur some technical problems which cause a break to their function. It may happen at any time and it is always not easy to find a technician available for the same. Thus, online technical support companies are here which helps people in solving their computer related issues. Like their services, their payment option is also advanced as you can pay through payment gateway available.

  • Good Knowledge And Experience In Providing Assistance

Payment gateway facility is new but has taken a rapid growth as it is easy and convenient. Now a person needs not to withdraw money or to carry cash with him. He can pay through online payment gateway to the merchant through net banking, debit cards or credit cards. It is a concept which mostly people are using these days. Same is applicable to the people who are taking assistance through online technical support companies. As these companies are available in some other locations, it is not easy to pay them in person. Thus, payment gateway is a better option available. Not only this, people are also getting services of different types like hacking, corrupt software and much more. The technical support person is having good knowledge and experience in providing assistance to the people and in this way, people feel happy after receiving their services. However, payment is to be made at first and there are different plans which a person can select depending upon his problem.  

  • Find Out The Problem

The representatives who are working at the company are having information about the problem and once they face the customer, they either verbally offer them the guidance about their computer so that they can repair it by their own else they take the permission of the user to take their system on remote to diagnose it and find out the problem. As you have paid for the services, they will offer free installation to the products which are mission including antivirus. They charges prior to the services. These payment gateway options while taking technical assistance online is also better because the local technical support person will charge more and it will take more energy in taking system at their place.  

  • Safest Way To Pay For Your Services

It is a safest way to pay for your services and it reaches to the account of that company within seconds. It is safe because it asks for your One Time password on your registered number to make transaction successful. Also, the company provides firewall to protect all your transaction details. Basically,

  • Transaction And Valuable Services

Customers need to put an effort in finding the right company for tech support assistance. There are multiple competitors available and if you will find the better one, you can be sure about your transaction and valuable services. Many companies are hiring qualified engineers who can offer right services to the customers. International companies are too a part of this competition through which quality services are offered.

The calling numbers are toll free and the payment gateways are a huge hit. Most of the people these days are doing online shopping and paying through these payment channels. Banks are also offering discount features and other facilities to their customers to motivate for payment through gateway option.

What You Have To Understand About Internet Marketing

If you are honest with yourself about your Internet marketing business, then you are here for one thing and one thing only and that is to make money. You may be thinking about the freedom of setting your own hours, but at the end of the day, but your focus should be on increasing your profits. Use the practical tips in this advice to maximize your earnings.

It is essential that you compile a good idea to keep contact information for your clients. Give your clients the opportunity to opt-in to signing up with a subscribe link or making their email address.

If you post a lot in forums or on message boards, you can usually link to your site right in your signature, if you put it into your signature box. This will be a way to promote your website to everyone you come in contact with on the web and might affect your search engine rankings as well.

Keep an eye on competitors and their tactics, and learn from what they are doing. If a competitor’s website entices you to purchase a product, or see why their customers would be, which you should incorporate into your own marketing campaigns.

Make sure there are captions with every image on your site include captions.Search engines use these captions to help determine if a site is relevant to a user’s search. Your traffic and search engine ranking will increase if you make your site keyword rich, but they still need to include relevant keywords that are searched by your niche.

There are many facets to internet marketing that will help increase your profits. It’s easy to combine your strong work ethic and passion for providing valuable merchandise and services with simple tips and advice that will help channel your efforts toward success.…

Agriculture
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Will agriculture be regulated by the “cap”?

No, under the most climate legislation being discussed in Congress manufacturing, transportation and utilities are “capped” entities, not agriculture. Agriculture, however, has the potential to be involved in the “trade” portion of the market.

Q. How much are these markets worth?

Analysis from EPA indicates ACES could create a domestic offset market valued at $2.7 billion to $3.4 billion or more annually within five years of the legislation’s implementation.(iii) Recent USDA analysis indicates domestic agricultural and forestry offset revenues of $2 billion per year in the near-term rising to $28 billion per year in the long-term.(iv) USDA analysis found that under ACES, “the agricultural sector will have modest costs in the short term and net benefits – perhaps significant net benefits – over the longterm.”(v)

Q. How can agricultural practices reduce or offset greenhouse gases and climate change?

Plants naturally take up carbon dioxide (a primary greenhouse gas) and give off oxygen. In this process, they also store or “sequester” carbon in the soil through their roots; however, most of that carbon is released when farmers plow up the field to plant a crop. If farmers were to use direct seeding or no-till practices to plant crops, they would keep all that stored carbon in the soil. Practices like this, which have the ability to literally take CO2 out of the atmosphere and sink it into soils –also create better soil fertility, water quality, water retention and greater wildlife habitat. Other farming practices could also qualify for GHG emission reduction credits under the bill now before Congress. ACES allows for 2 billion annual offset credits to be traded on the market. Currently, the bill allows for emissions to be offset by:(vi)

  • Soil Carbon Sequestration
  • Animal Waste Methane Capture
  • Nitrous Oxide Reductions from Fertilizer Application
  • Afforestation Carbon Sequestration
  • Forest Management Carbon Sequestration

USDA forecasts the amount of carbon sequestered by US agriculture will nearly double from current levels in the next five years.(vii) This additional uptake is expected through improved soil management (~60%), improved manure and nutrient management (~30%), and additional land-retirement (~10%).(viii)

Q. How do offsets impact the cost of emissions reductions for the US economy?

Agricultural carbon offsets are a lowest cost option and they can significantly reduce the overall cost of a cap-and-trade system while still achieving the desired level of emissions reductions. Additionally, offsets may act as a price “safety valve” for cap-and-trade if an unlimited number of offsets are allowed. As the price of a carbon allowance or credit rises, because the cost of abatement is often lower for agriculture than for other sectors, new entrants will arrive at an earlier price-point than other participants.

Also Check – How can agriculture be a part of the solution to climate change?

In Regards To Woodwork, This Article Holds The Best Techniques

It is a positive thing to identify and nurture your particular niche in the art of woodworking. Keep reading to understand woodworking better and have fun with it too.

Do you realize that your workbench height affects your work? This will help you know what the perfect height.

Gel stains can be your best friend when staining furniture and other wood projects that need staining. Gel stains will adhere much better on lumber because the liquid kind usually run.Gel stains are also allow for consistent color on pieces since it is thicker.

You should do dry fitting before you apply glue and clamping your woodworking pieces together. You can cause damage if you tinker with the fit after you’ve applied the glue. Dry fitting will help you how the components fit together.

Know your wood’s properties before you use it for a specific project that requires staining. Using the appropriate wood means your project has a better chance of turning into what you expected it to.

Understand the characteristics of the wood you’re using. Every piece of wood will be different to work with. Different woods will also splinter differently. There will also be a wide range of wood grains. All of these characteristics will become features in your woodworking projects.

Ear protection is important if you begin a project. The machinery used for woodworking can be very loud. You can lose your hearing because of it. Use a pair of high quality headphones or ear plugs you can throw away. Make sure you use some form of protection when operating machinery.

Are you having trouble reaching that is insufficient for your screwdriver and highly obscured screw? Your toolbox contains the answer!Get a screwdriver with a long handle and a 12-point socket.

Look around your neighborhood and workplace for some free wood. Some businesses may have excess wood pallets lying around and they’d be willing to just give it to you. Look online and find ideas for some more ideas.

You can make cuts without a perfectionist with tape measures. Cutting on your scrap wood first is always a good idea and means you can test a fitting out. Having a variety in the ways you from mental boredom.

When you’re working with wood, you should understand that you don’t have to have perfect creations all the time. They will have a little character and are what you make of them. Your skills will improve as you work on more projects and use the tips that were listed above.…

Agriculture
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How can agriculture be a part of the solution to climate change?

With the adoption of a cap-and-trade market that includes agricultural offsets, it has been estimated that 30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets could be met with agricultural offsets annually over the next 50 years.(i) Currently, agriculture emits about 6% of the annual total of US greenhouse gases.(ii) Reductions could come from the use of methane capture, precision fertilizer application, and other agricultural practices such as carbon sequestration.

Q. What are offset markets and how do they work?

Since greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere from emissions worldwide, greenhouse gas reductions can come from anywhere with equal impact on climate change. Offset markets are a way for companies to meet their GHG reduction obligations through reductions outside their facilities and operations. A company might do this for a period of time to avoid replacing equipment before the end of its useful life or because it is the most cost effective way to meet their reduction obligations.

For example, if a utility is required to reduce their emissions by 100 tons over the next year, an offset market allows them maximum flexibility to meet that goal while keep prices stable for consumers. The utility could reduce its direct emissions to reach part of the goal, increase its efficiency to meet part, and it could choose to purchase GHG reductions from farmers for part – or its entire target depending on which choices make the most economic sense. In this way, offset markets make it possible to take action to reduce greenhouse gases without significantly affecting the economy.

In order to create these markets Congress must adopt a policy that caps greenhouse gas emissions and allows agricultural offsets to be purchased in place of allowances (cap and trade). So far, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) has passed the House of Representatives, which contains multiple opportunities for American agriculture to partake in a robust offset market. The Senate is involved in ongoing discussion of climate legislation, but Senator Stabenow and six key co-sponsors have introduced the Clean Energy Partnerships Act of 2009 (CEPA) which makes America’s agriculture and manufacturing part of the solution in the debate over climate and clean energy. CEPA includes a domestic emission-reductions program to earn carbon credits and a list of initial eligible projects.

You can even look for :- Will agriculture be regulated by the “cap”?

Tips For Making Woodworking Projects Easier And More Fun

This article can help fine tune your woodworking knowledge. The following article has some great tips for folks of all skill level. Read this article if you want to better your skills as a woodworker.

Use stair gauges for crosscut guide.Then you simply mark where the notches. You have a great crosscut guide for your circular saw when you put it on the carpenter’s square.

Be sure that you have some kind of an idea of what you can budget your budget allowance can accommodate. It is very disappointing to find out of the project. Do your due diligence to avoid surprises.

Gel stains are the new big thing for staining furniture. Gel stains will adhere much better on the wood because they don’t run like the liquid stains do. Gel stains are much thicker which means they’re more consistent.

You need a good stair gauge inside your shop. This can make the carpenter square into a guide for your circular saw guide. Using this square will allow you get straight cuts that are straight.

Know the characteristics of any wood before you buy or use it. Using the appropriate wood ensures that your project has a better chance of turning into what you expected it to.

Keeping a little ruler inside your pocket is smart, however sometimes it can be frustrating if it falls out.The magnet keep the ruler in your pocket at all times.

Learn all about the wood you are working with and their characteristics. Each wood is completely different. Different woods will splinter differently. There will also be a wide range of wood grains. All of this will become factors in your woodworking projects.

Be sure that you have a good blade that in great condition before sawing. A dull blade will not be able to saw the way you to finish your project.

Add a bit more spring in your grip. These clamps can be very difficult to open up with one hand.There are ways to make it easier. Before you start to glue, arrange all the clamps you will be using onto some scrap wood while both of your hands are free. This makes it possible to use them with only one hand unnecessary.

Wear sturdy footwear as you are working on your wood projects. You want to make sure your feet are protected from getting injured if you accidentally step on a nail or kick something heavy.You need to have solid footwear in order to prevent injuries from occurring where you are working in.

Make sure your work area.Woodworking requires great accuracy when measuring.

Be very careful when using your table saw. This will prevent boards from your board when you are cutting. This technique will also keep the board end open so you can cut.

Watch some woodworking shows that air on television.They can provide you useful information and give you inspiration for your next projects. Check your TV listings for these types of programming.

As was stated earlier, the article above has lots of information that is useful for woodworkers with any level of skill. Use this information for your next project. Now, go get started!…

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International

INTRODUCTION

The development of markets for carbon offsets has important implications for farmers all over the world. Farmers in both the developed and developing world have the potential to reduce and sequester carbon through farming practices such as no-till or conservation agriculture, precision fertilizer application, and methane capture. These practices can reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as result in additional benefits for farm productivity, soil quality, and water quality. All of these practices have the potential to be credited as carbon offsets if the right mechanisms were in place, whether in US legislation or an international treaty.

There are also practices such as avoided deforestation that have important implications for agriculture. For example, REDD or Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, is a mechanism that would credit farmers through the carbon market for keeping tropical forests standing. REDD has the potential to achieve significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries. It also has important implications for US farms like competitiveness and land use change. Read more about REDD in our white paper.

WORKING GROUP INTERNATIONAL

The Ag Carbon Market Working Group has been connecting with farmers around the world to share information about how agriculture can contribute to the solution to climate change. We have taken part in farmer exchanges with Germany and Brazil, and our members have participated in the international climate negotiations. Or read the blog at AgOffsets to follow our experience at the international climate summit in Poznan and Copenhagen.

Check our Useful Sources Post to Explore.

If you are interested in international ag carbon markets, please sign-up to receive updates from the Working Group and continue to check our website for news and analysis. Or you can contact us directly to learn more about the working group.

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Check out the following websites for other international organizations focused on the role of agriculture in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)
Carbon Coalition of Australia
Soil Conservation Council of Canada
COPA-COGECA Farmers and Agri-Cooperatives of Europe
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Avoided Deforestation Partners (ADP)

INTERNATIONAL PLATFORMS ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE

International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)
COPA-COGECA Farmes and Agri-Cooperatives of Europe
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
International Food Agricultural Trade Policy Council
Global Donor Program for Rural Development
Tropical Forest and Climate Unity Agreement…

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Useful Sources

AgOffsets Blog http://www.agoffsets.blogspot.com/

Consortium for Agricultural Soils Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases (CASMGS) http://www.casmgs.colostate.edu/

Duke University, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Standard for Measuring, Monitoring and Verifying Ag-Forest GHG Reductions http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/institute/ghgoffsetsguide/

Clean Air Task Force Economic Modeling of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Bill http://lieberman.senate.gov/documents/catflwcsa.pdf

Also check for International post.

Pacific NW Direct Seed Association Carbon Program http://www.directseed.org/carbon%20trading.html

General
Climate & Carbon Information
CASMGS
Climate and Farming Cornell University
Kansas State Carbon Center
Pew Center-Global Climate Change
Point Carbon
www.casmgs.colostate.edu
www.climateandfarming.org
www.soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu
www.pewclimate.org
www.pointcarbon.org
Conservation/NoTill Organizations

Alberta Reduced Tillage Linkages
Conservation Technology Information Center
Eastern Canada Soil & Water Conservation Centre
Innovative Farmers of Ontario
International Biochar Initiative
Manitoba-No Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Assn
Natural Resource Conservation Service
No-till on the Plains
Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association
Saskatchewan Conservation Learning Centre
Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association
Soil and Water Conservation Society
Soil Conservation Council of Canada
The Land Institute
Western Australia No-Tillage Farmers Assn

www.reducedtillage.ca
www.ctic.purdue.edu/
www.ccse-swcc.nb.cawww.ifao.com
www.biochar-international.org
www.mandakzerotill.orgwww.nrcs.usda.gov
www.notill.org
www.directseed.org
www.conservationlearningcentre.com

www.ssca.ca

www.swcs.org
www.soilcc.ca
www.landinstitute.org
www.wantfa.com.au

   
Environmental Groups  

Ducks Unlimited Canada
Saskatchewan Wildlife Federation

www.ducks.ca
www.swf.sk.ca
   
Carbon
Sequestration & Trading
Experts
 

Charles W. (Chuck) Rice
William E. Schlosser
William Ferretti, Liaison to Govt/Public
Don Reicosky, USDA-ARS, Minnesota

www.soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu
www.consulting-foresters.com
www.chicagoclimatex.com
www.mrsars.usda.gov
   
Aggregators  

Illinois Delta
Iowa Farm Bureau
National Carbon Offset Coalition
National Farmers Union
Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association
SunOne Solutions

www.illinoisclimate.org
www.iowafarmbureau.com/special/carbon/
www.ncoc.us
www.nfu.org
www.directseed.org
www.sunonesolutions.com
Facts
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What will happen to farming income?

Projections on increased costs from cap-and-trade to agriculture vary widely. Analysis by Iowa State University economist Bruce Babcock indicates “relatively small” production costs of roughly $4.52 per acre for corn and soy farmers in Iowa, on the order of 1-2%. To put this potential cost increase into perspective, the variable cost of producing corn and soybeans in Iowa in 2009 is somewhere around $300 per acre. Babcock also cites that the amount of soil carbon that can be increased from adoption of no-till farming is typically on the order of one ton of CO2 per hectare, or about 0.4 tons per acre annually. At a $20-per-ton carbon price, this amounts to $8.00 per acre.

USDA analysis of ACES also indicates only marginal production cost increases. In fact, USDA found the near-term impact of ACES on net farm income is less than a 1% decrease. While USDA predicts the cost of fertilizer and production will increase over the medium and longer term, these increases are still predicted to be less than 10%.

Depending on the carbon pricing scheme, farmers could increase their net profits under a cap and trade system (after taking costs into account). Recent USDA analysis “strongly suggests that revenue from agricultural offsets (afforestation, soil carbon, methane reduction, nitrous oxide reductions) rise faster than costs to agriculture from cap and trade legislation.”

KEY OFFSET TERMS
To have value in the market, offsets represent an actual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Offsets meet some basic guidelines to ensure quality. Pending federal cap-and-trade climate legislation would begin the creation of universal standards. However, generally, offsets that are Permanent, Additional, Verifiable, and Real emissions reductions will have value:

1. Permanence. The most desirable carbon sequestration projects are those where the emissions reductions are likely to remain intact indefinitely. However, some types of projects may be reversible; these projects may enter into a contract lease, potentially as short as a handful of years. A project of this variety could qualify for offsets, particularly if the purchaser agrees to make up the lost emission reductions through other means after the lease expires.

2. Additionality. An offset project needs to be an activity that would not have taken place normally, therefore keeping more carbon dioxide from reaching the atmosphere than would have otherwise happened. That is, the project needs to be a net reduction beyond the baseline for operations or behavior.

3. Leakage. When a carbon offset project in one location results in a net increase of emission elsewhere, this is referred to as leakage. For example, if keeping part of a field fallow to sequester carbon at a site leads to land clearing elsewhere, the emissions is said to have “leaked”. Quality offsets must account for and minimize leakage.

4. Verification. Reductions must be measured and monitored for accuracy. Moreover, periodic third party measuring and monitoring is important to ensure honesty and transparency.

5. Double Counting. When carbon reductions are applied to multiple reduction targets or counted twice within the same reduction target. This can happen across supply chains and if a project is included in two different markets.

6. Stackability. The potential to earn additional payments for multiple types of ecosystem benefits. That is, stackability could mean earning carbon payments in addition to other payments such as water quality permit payments, CRP incentives, etc.

SOURCES
(i) US Environmental Protection Agency, 2005, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture, EPA 430-R-05-006.
(ii) Ibid.
(iii) Calculations based on 2009 EPA analysis of domestic offsets usage under the domestic and international offset market scenarios. Data from: U.S EPA. 2009. EPA Analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 H.R. 2454 in the 111th Congress. Retrieved online from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/pdfs/HR2454_Analysis.pdf
(iv) Values in real 2005 dollars. Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture. You can even look for :- What will happen to farming income?
(v) Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.
(vi) U.S. EPA. 2009. EPA Analysis of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 H.R. 2454 in the 111th Congress. Retrieved online from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/pdfs/HR2454_Analysis.pdf
(vii) Congressional Research Service. 6 Mar 2007. Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector.
(viii) Ibid.
(ix) Babcock, Bruce. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University. 13 July 2009. “Economist: Climate bill’s farm impact ‘relatively small’.” Retrieved online from: http://blogs.desmoinesregister.com/dmr/index.php/2009/07/13/economist-climate-bills-farm-impact-relatively-small/.
(x) Babcock, Bruce. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University. 2009. Costs and Benefits to Agriculture from Climate Change Policy. Iowa Ag Review. Summer, Vol. 15, No. 3. Retrieved online from: http://www.card.iastate.edu/iowa_ag_review/summer_09/article1.aspx.
(xi) Ibid.
(xii) Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.
(xiii) Ibid.
(xiv)Office of the Chief Economist, Economic Research Service, USDA. 22 July 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR2454 on US Agriculture.…